Products and Services
Driven piles are deep foundation elements driven to a design depth or resistance. If penetration of dense soil is required, predrilling may be required for the pile to penetrate to the design depth. Types include timber, pre-cast concrete, steel H-piles, and pipe piles. The finished foundation element resists compressive, uplift and lateral loads. The technique has been used to support buildings, tanks, towers and bridges. Driven piles can also be used to provide lateral support for earth retention walls. Steel sheet piles and soldier piles are the most common type of driven piles for this application.
Micropiles, also known as minipiles, (and less commonly as pin piles, needle piles and root piles) are deep foundation elements constructed using high-strength, small-diameter steel casing and/or threaded bar. Capacities vary depending on the micropile size and subsurface profile. Allowable micropile capacities in excess of 1,000 tons have been achieved.
The micropile casing generally has a diameter in the range of 3 to 10 inches. Typically, the casing is advanced to the design depth using a drilling technique. Reinforcing steel in the form of an all-thread bar is typically inserted into the micropile casing. High-strength cement grout is then pumped into the casing. The casing may extend to the full depth or terminate above the bond zone with the reinforcing bar extending to the full depth. The finished micropile (minipile) resists compressive, uplift/tension and lateral loads and is typically load tested in accordance with ASTM D 1143 (compressive), ASTM D 3689 (uplift/tension), and ASTM D 3966 (lateral). The technique has been used to support most types of structures. Linde-Griffith’s micropile drill rigs allow installation in restricted access, low headroom interiors, permitting facility upgrades with minimal disruption to normal operations. (Click on “view all images” at the left to see typical applications).
Linde-Griffith has the capability of combining our micropile technology with one or more of our other ground modification techniques to meet unique or complex project requirements cost-effectively and efficiently. Lines of micropiles spanned by wooden lagging can be ideal where excavation walls are required in low headroom and other confined areas. Post-grouting within the bond length can increase frictional forces with surrounding soils, thus achieving greater capacity. Micropiles can serve to “stitch” the soil together, within predicted shear zones to enhance mass stability. In liquefiable profiles micropiles can transfer loads to competent bearing strata to conform to seismic design requirements. Foundation underpinning is often performed using micropiles or other deep foundations techniques adjacent to planned excavations.
For planned foundations in areas with multiple underground utilities, the cost of a cast-in-place piling system may often be substantially increased by the expense of utility re-routing, creation of adequate access, and sometimes even a shutdown of facility operations. With Linde-Griffith micropiles (minipiles), these complications are rarely an issue when performing foundation repair. Small diameter micropiles can be installed while avoiding existing utilities. Linde-Griffith works closely with engineers, contractors, and owners to help to ensure that micropile installation minimizes impact on facility operations. Moreover, micropiles greatly alleviate the quality assurance concerns associated with cast-in-place piling in weak soils.
Sheet piling is an earth retention and excavation support technique that retains soil, using steel sheet sections with interlocking edges. Sheet piles are installed in sequence to design depth along the planned excavation perimeter or seawall alignment. The interlocked sheet piles form a wall for permanent or temporary lateral earth support with reduced groundwater inflow. Anchors can be included to provide additional lateral support if required.
Sheet pile walls have been used to support excavations for below grade parking structures, basements, pump houses, and foundations, construct cofferdams, and to construct seawalls and bulkheads. Permanent steel sheet piles are designed to provide a long service life.
Vibratory hammers are used to install sheet piles. If soils are too hard or dense, an impact hammer can be used to complete the installation. At certain sites where vibrations are a concern, the sheets can be hydraulically pushed into the ground.
Sheet piles are also a sustainable option since recycled steel is used in their construction, and the piles can often be reused.
Anchors are stabilization and support elements that transfer tension loads, using high-strength steel bars or steel strand tendons. A full-length hole is drilled through the soil and into the bond zone in soil or rock using casing if necessary. Threadbar or strand tendon is inserted into the hole and the hole is filled with high-strength grout. Any casing used is then extracted. The length of bar or strand above the bond zone is covered by a bond breaker to eliminate load transfer above the bond zone. The anchor head is then generally tensioned and connected to the structure requiring the support.
Augercast piles, also known as continuous flight auger piles (CFA), are deep foundation elements that are cast-in-place, using a hollow stem auger with continuous flights. The auger is drilled into the soil and/or rock to design depth. The auger is then slowly extracted, removing the drilled soil/rock as concrete or grout is pumped through the hollow stem. The grout pressure and volume must be carefully controlled to construct a continuous pile without defects. Reinforcing steel is then lowered into the wet concrete or grout. The finished foundation element resists compressive, uplift and lateral loads. The technique has been used to support buildings, tanks, towers and bridges.
Drilled shafts, also known as caissons, are typically high-capacity cast-in-place deep foundation elements constructed using an auger. A hole having the design diameter of planned shaft is first drilled to the design depth. If the hole requires assistance to remain open, casing or drilling fluid is used. Full-length reinforcing steel is then lowered into the hole and the hole is filled with concrete. The finished foundation element resists compressive, uplift and lateral loads. The technique has been used to support buildings, tanks, towers and bridges.
Soldier piles and lagging is an earth retention technique that retains soil, using vertical steel piles with horizontal lagging. Typically, H-piles are drilled or driven at regular intervals along the planned excavation perimeter. Lagging consisting of wood, steel or precast concrete panels is inserted behind the front pile flanges as the excavation proceeds. The lagging effectively resists the load of the retained soil and transfers it to the piles. The walls can be designed as cantilever walls, or receive additional lateral support from anchors or bracing. The technique has been used to provide support of excavation in many situations.
Helical piles, also known as helical piers, are deep foundation underpinning elements constructed using steel shafts with helical flights. The shafts are advanced to bearing depth by twisting them into the soil while monitoring torque to estimate the pile capacity. A thorough understanding of the subsurface conditions is necessary to properly interpret the torque conversion. After reaching design capacity, the tops of the shafts are bracketed to the structure's footing. The finished piles effectively underpin the footing, stopping settlement.
Soil nailing is an earth retention technique using grouted tension-resisting steel elements (nails) that can be design for permanent or temporary support. The walls are generally constructed from the top down. Typically, 3 to 6 feet of soil is excavated from the top of the planned excavation. Near-horizontal holes are drilled into the exposed face at typically 3 to 6 foot centers. Tension-resisting steel bars are inserted into the holes and grouted. A drainage system is installed on the exposed face, followed by the application of reinforced shotcrete facing. Precast face panels have also been used instead of shotcrete. Bearing plates are then fixed to the heads of the soil nails. The soil at the base of this first stage is then removed to a depth of about 3 to 6 feet. The installation process is repeated until the design wall depth is reached. The finished soil nails produce a zone of reinforced ground.
Soil nailing equipment is small enough that it can easily negotiate restricted access. For existing steep slopes, such as bluffs or existing retaining walls, the soil nails can be installed from crane-suspended working platforms. Soil nails can also be installed directly beneath existing structures adjacent to excavations. Care should be exercised when applying the system underneath an existing structure. Linde Griffith has used extensive 3D modeling to avoid conflicts between soil nails and other earth retention systems on complex projects that involve the use of multiple techniques, and to ensure the safety of buried utilities.
Soil nailing has been used to stabilize slopes and landslides, provide earth retention for excavations for buildings, plants, parking structures, tunnels, deep cuts, and repair existing retaining walls.
Compaction grouting, also known as Low Mobility Grouting, is a grouting technique that displaces and densifies loose granular soils, reinforces fine grained soils and stabilizes subsurface voids or sinkholes, by the staged injection of low-slump, low mobility aggregate grout. Typically, an injection pipe is first advanced to the maximum treatment depth. The low mobility grout is then injected as the pipe is slowly extracted in lifts, creating a column of overlapping grout bulbs. The expansion of the low mobility grout bulbs displaces surrounding soils. When performed in granular soil, compaction grouting increases the surrounding soils density, friction angle and stiffness. In all soils, the high modulus grout column reinforces the soils within the treatment zone. By sequencing the compaction grouting work from primary to secondary to tertiary locations, the densification process can be performed to achieve significant improvement. Compaction grouting has been used to increase bearing capacity, and decrease settlement and liquefaction potential for planned and existing structures. In karst geologies, compaction grouting has been used to treat existing sinkholes or to reduce the sinkhole potential in sinkhole prone areas.
Compaction grouting was developed in the 1950s as a remedial measure for the correction of building settlement, and used almost exclusively for that purpose for many years. Over the past 25 years, however, compaction grouting technology has evolved to treat a wide range of subsurface conditions for new and remedial construction. These include rubble fills, poorly placed fills, loosened or collapsible soils, sinkhole sites, and liquefiable soils.
Compaction grouting offers an economic advantage over conventional approaches such as removal and replacement, or piling, and can be accomplished where access is difficult and space is limited. Compaction grouting for treatment beneath existing structures is often selected because the low mobility grout columns do not require structural connection to the foundations.
Jet grouting is a grouting technique that creates in situ geometries of soilcrete (grouted soil), using a grouting monitor attached to the end of a drill stem. The jet grout monitor is advanced to the maximum treatment depth, at which time high velocity grout jets (and sometimes water and air) are initiated from ports in the side of the monitor. The jets erode and mix the in situ soil as the drill stem and jet grout monitor are rotated and raised.
Depending on the application and soils to be treated, one of three variations is used: the single fluid system (slurry grout jet), the double fluid system (slurry grout jet surrounded by an air jet) and the triple fluid system (water jet surrounded by an air jet, with a lower grout jet). The jet grouting process constructs soilcrete panels, full columns or anything in between (partial columns) with designed strength and permeability. Jet grouting has been used to underpin existing foundations, construct excavation support walls, and construct slabs to seal the bottom of planned excavations.
Jet grouting is effective across the widest range of soil types of any grouting system, including silts and most clays. Because it is an erosion-based system, soil erodibility plays a major role in predicting geometry, quality and production. Cohesionless soils are typically more erodible by jet grouting than cohesive soils. Since the geometry and physical properties of the soilcrete are engineered, the properties of the soilcrete are readily and accurately predictable.
Jet grouting’s ability to construct soilcrete in confined spaces and around subsurface obstructions such as utilities, provides a unique degree of design flexibility. Indeed, in any situation requiring control of groundwater or excavation of unstable soil (water-bearing or otherwise) jet grouting should be considered.
Usually, jet grouting can be accomplished without disrupting normal facility operations. The recent development of small containerized, highly mobile support equipment has enabled starting jet grouting work on the first day of setup, greatly reducing mobilization and demobilization costs. Jet grouting can often result in construction schedule savings.
Secant or tangent piles are columns constructed adjacent (tangent) or overlapping (secant) each other to form structural walls that resist lateral pressures and groundwater inflow for bulkhead support, earth retention, groundwater control, or slope stability. The columns are constructed with soil mixing, jet grouting, augercast, or drilled shaft methods. Sequenced construction of the individual elements that comprise the finished barrier helps to ensure a tight seal between elements for complete water cut off. The design can incorporate steel bar or beams for reinforcement. Anchors provide additional lateral support, if needed. Secant or tangent pile walls can be constructed in a wide variety of soil conditions, including through cobbles and boulders.
Linde-Griffith Construction Co.'s specialties are many, all revolving around deep foundations and marine construction:
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Linde-Griffith Construction Co. realizes the importance of on-time project starts and early project completions. Linde-Griffith Construction Co. believes we demonstrate the care for our customers and the expertise for their projects better than anyone else does. To insure this, Linde-Griffith Construction Co. employs a strict level of control over all our operations.
Linde-Griffith Construction Co. is self-reliant. This is evidenced by every aspect of our project management and control, from our in-house capacity to mobilize cranes and equipment, to our on-staff construction and layout services, to our ability to adjust immediately to varying material requirements, to our daily supervision of each project. Linde-Griffith Construction Co. employs our own personnel and utilizes our own equipment, depending on no outside vendor to service our projects.
Linde-Griffith Construction Co., with our fleet of heavy-duty tractors and trailers, moves our own cranes and equipment, sometimes within hours of our customer’s order. Linde-Griffith Construction Co. is mobilized and ready to commence construction operations, often times, in less than one day after receiving the notice to proceed.
An owner of Linde-Griffith Construction Co. supervises each of our projects. This on-site executive management and supervision allows for timely, accurate, and committed field decisions. This practice further demonstrates to each of our customers that their project is being constructed by a professional pile driving company that has a vested interest in mutual success.